Two Paradigms

Paradigm 1: We now know nearly everything. Anything we don’t yet know we can work out from theory. A single observation is sufficient to validate a theory. Validated theories should not be questioned. Theories areĀ  respected in proportion to their complexity.

Paradigm 2: We don’t know how much we don’t know. New insights are only gained by careful observation. Theories are a guide to further observation. A theory cannot be validated but a single counter-example is sufficient to invalidate a theory. The simplest theory that explains the observations is preferred.

Paradigm 1 is called “The Science” by journalists and administrators.

Examples are climate models and General Relativity.

Paradigm 2 is the scientific method;

If it doesn’t work it’s not true.

These pages are dedicated to articles which explore natural phenomena by means of the second paradigm.